Abrasion. Surface loss of a material due to frictional forces.
Abrasion Resistance. The resistance to scratching of a surface of paper by other paper surfaces or other materials.
Absorbency. The ability of a material to take up moisture.
Accelerated Aging. A method in which pressure sensitive materials are subjected to special environmental conditions in order to measure the effects of natural aging in a shorter period of time.
Accordion Fold. Folding paper by bending each fold in the opposite direction of the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion effect.
Acetate. A transparent sheet placed over originals or artwork, allowing the designer to write instructions and/or indicate a second color for placement.
Achromatic. The non-colors of black, white and gray.
Acid-free Paper. A paper containing no acidity or acid producing chemicals that degrades less over time than acidic papers.
Acrylic. A synthetic polymer with excellent aging characteristics that can be used as either a single component adhesive or a coating or saturant, depending upon composition.
Acrylic Adhesive. A pressure sensitive, viscoelastic blend of acrylic-based high strength polymers which may be modified by tackifying additives. Acrylic adhesives are a very broad class of materials and come in many types to achieve different properties.
Additive Color. Color produced by light falling onto a surface, as compared to subtractive color. The additive primary colors are red, green and blue.
Adhesion Failure - The separation of two materials at the surface interface rather than within one of the materials itself.
Adhesion to Self - The force required to remove a tape from its own backing to which it has been reapplied with a defined pressure after being removed from the roll.
Adhesion - A bond produced between a pressure sensitive adhesive and a surface, determined by the materials' surface energy and the chemical makeup of the adhesive. The ultimate adhesion varies with the adhesive, but it is usually in the range of 72-96 hours.
Adhesive - A substance that will usefully hold two or more objects together solely by intimate surface contact. Featuring acrylic adhesive both aqueous and solvent types, hot melt rubber adhesive, solvent rubber adhesive, silicone adhesives, urethane adhesives, heat activated adhesives, differential adhesives and liquid adhesives.
Adhesive Binding. A binding method which uses thread-free adhesives to secure loose leaves into a solid text block.
Adhesive Bleed. A condition in which adhesive has oozed out or has been mechanically drawn from under the edge of a pressure-sensitive material through a split in the back of the material or through the edge of sheeted stock.
Adhesive Residue - The adhesive remaining on a substrate when a self-adhesive material is removed from the substrate.
Adhesive Skip - An area without adhesive.
Adhesive Tapes - Materials include acrylic adhesives, modified acrylic adhesives, solvent rubber, adhesives modified rubber adhesives, hot melt rubber adhesives, urethane adhesives, silicone adhesives, coated onto polyester, polyethylene, polypropylene, Kapton, foils, foams, fabrics, both single coated or coated on two sides, medical acrylate adhesives, medical rubber adhesives coated onto polyester, polyethylene, polyurethane, woven & non-woven materials, hydrocolloid and hydrogel adhesives and medical grade silicone adhesives.
Adhesive Transfer - The transfer of adhesive from its normal position on the tape to the surface to which the tape was attached, either during unwind or removal, resulting in tacky areas on the surface.
Adhesive Transfer Tape - Unsupported pressure sensitive tape consists of release liners and adhesives. The release liners are commonly paper and coated on both sides of the paper with silicone release agents creating a differential release. Acrylic adhesives are commonly used in this application. Examples of unsupported tapes are envelope sealing, graphic attachment and splicing.
Additive Colors. Additive colors are produced through the addition of different colored light. In theory, every color can be produced by mixing the primary colors of the visible light spectrum: red, green and blue (RGB). Combining all three primary colors to equal parts produces white. The color vision of the human eye works through red-, green- and blue- sensitive sensory cells. When, for example, red and green rays of light reach the corresponding receptor cells in the eye, we see the mixed color yellow. When all three-color receptors are stimulated, the eye sees white. RGB is the usual additive color system and is used predominantly for television screens, computer monitors and scanners. Combining two of the primary colors in equal parts produces the secondary colors cyan, magenta and yellow, which in turn form the basic colors of the subtractive color system (CMYK).
Additive Color Mixing. This is the process of producing color through the addition of different colors of light. Computer and television screens use thousands of red, green, and blue phosphor dots, which are so small and close together that the human eye cannot see them individually. Instead, the eye sees the colors formed by the mixture of light.
Aerate. This refers to a manual process whereby an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to create a riffling effect that separates the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.
Against the Grain. Running a sheet of paper through a printing press at right angles to the grain direction of the paper, as opposed to with the grain. This is usually suboptimal for both press operation and registration of the 4 color process inks. Sometimes called cross grain.
Aging - The irreversible change of material properties after environmental exposure for an interval of time. Aging can be "natural" when the temperature and humidity are those encountered naturally, or it can be "accelerated" by elevating the temperature.
Airbrush. Pen-shaped tool that sprays a fine mist of ink or paint to retouch photos and create continuous-tone illustrations.
Alignment. The position of elements on a page n relation to a referenced horizontal or vertical line.
Alley. The blank space between columns of type, sometimes also called a gutter or column margin.
Altar Fold. Also called gatefold or window-fold. This technique involves folding the sheet so that two flaps are formed, which can be opened from either side.
Alteration. Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator, or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.
Anchorage - The specific adhesion of a pressure sensitive adhesive to a face material or an anchor coat.
Angle Bar. In ‘web-fed” printing (printing of rolls of paper as opposed to single sheets), an angle bar is a metal bar that is used to turn paper between two components of the press.
Aniline Printing. Aniline printing is an old term for flexographic printing and takes its name from the aniline-based inks employed. Printing presses using this process employ rubber rollers as letterpress forms and print with quick-drying, low-viscosity inks. The first presses of this type appeared on the market at the beginning of the 20th century. They were mainly used to print packaging material.
Anilox – anilox is a method used to provide a measured amount of ink to a flexo printing plate. An anilox roll is a hard cylinder, usually constructed of a steel or aluminum core which is coated by an industrial ceramic whose surface contains millions of very fine dimples, known as cells.
Anodized Plate. In lithography, a plate manufactured with a barrier of aluminum oxide, which prevents chemical reactions that break down the plate; it provides optimum press performance.
Anti-aliasing. The process of averaging between pixels of different colors. This results in a smoother, more blended transition between the edge of two areas rather than a distinctly jagged appearance.
Application Temperature - The temperature range at which the tape may easily be applied once off the roll.
Apron. The white area at the margins of text or illustrations used to form a foldout.
Aqua Tint. A printing process that uses the recessed areas of the plate; ideal for graded and even tones.
Aqueous Coating. This clear coating is used to protect printed pieces. It provides a high-gloss surface that deters dirt and fingerprints. Aqueous coating improves the durability of postcards as they go through the mail and protects business cards as they ride around in people pockets. It also looks beautiful on brochures, catalog covers, and stand-alone flyers.
Aerometer. The aerometer (aka scale aerometer, hydrometer, spindle), a device for determining the density of liquids, is used in printing technology to measure the concentration of alcohol in water-containing process liquids.
Artwork. The original physical materials, including photos, graphic images, text and other components needed to produce a printed piece. Can also now refer to the electronic or digital components needed for preparing a printed piece for production on a press or copier.
ASCII. The American Standard Code for Information Interchange, or ASCII for short, was standardized in the USA and is used to encode letters and numbers in digital form for electronic storage and processing.
Assembled View. In illustration, a term used to describe a view of a drawing in its assembled or whole format.
Autochrome Paper. Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-colored printing jobs.
Auto positive. Any photo materials which provide positive images without a negative.
Back-grind. Distortion at the parting line, usually in the form of a ragged or torn indentation.
Backing (Carrier) - A relatively thin flexible material such as film, paper, cloth or metal foil, to which the adhesive is applied. Theoretically, any material that is reasonably flat, relatively thin, and flexible could be used as a tape backing.
Back-scoring (Crack & Peel) - Cutting the bottom release liner in such a way as to aid in the dispensing or applying of the product.
Bandwidth Refers to the amount of data that can pass through a transmission channel while transmitting data from one computer to another in a given period of time. The normal metric for the bandwidth is “bits per second” (bps), it is also known as the maximum data transfer rate.
Banner. In Internet terminology, a banner is a rectangular window on a web page with text and graphics used for promotional purposes. A distinguishing feature of banners is that they invite users to interact. By clicking the mouse, the user is usually taken to the web site of the advertiser, where more detailed information is available. Banners have been in widespread use since the mid-1990s. In recent times, they have often been animated to attract the attention of the user.
Barcode. The barcode is used to display characters in such a way that they can be read easily by machine. The code consists of a system of narrow and wide, dark and light strips. One of the most common applications for barcode markings is the EAN code for identifying all types of goods. The EAN code also defines the barcode’s representation of the individual figures. Other code systems are also available, including those for representing letters and numbers.
Bi-Directional - Related to strapping tapes, in which the reinforcing material consists of filaments in both the length and the cross directions, usually a woven cloth.
Bit Depth. The term "bit depth" refers to the number of bits used by a graphic input or output device to display the color value of a pixel. Graphic cards in computers work with bit depths of up to 24 bit, for example. They thus have 8 bits available for coding each of the three-color components - red, green and blue - in the RGB mode and can thus display 224 or roughly 16.7 million colors. Modern scanners often have bit depths of 30 bits or more.
Bitmap. The simplest format for graphics, where the pixels within a two-dimensional coordinate system are described by an x, y value (position of the pixel) and a color value.
Black Generation. Black generation is a term which describes how the color black is used in a set for four-color printing. In theory, black is not required in the CMYK color system for representing various hues of an image. In practice, however, it is used whenever contrast and detail need to be enhanced in dark areas. The term short black or skeleton black is applied if the color is only used for this purpose (for which only a small amount of black is required). Black can also be used in color mixes to replace equal components of the three chromatic colors cyan, magenta and yellow (Under Color Reduction), thereby reducing the total volume of ink actually required in the print. This is known as ‘long black’.
Blanket Cylinder. The blanket clamped around a cylinder is the core element of offset printing. It transfers the printed image from the printing form to the paper. The process of depositing the ink on the blanket also gave rise to the term “offset printing”. Blankets enable consistent printing over large areas and are ideal for rough or grained papers. The blanket on the cylinder is usually 1.65 or 1.95 mm thick and consists of two, three or four fabric interleaves in addition to the actual covering layer. A distinction is usually made between the conventional blankets, which can be deformed but not compressed, and the compressible, air-cushioned blankets. Standard DIN 16621 sets out the requirements for “blankets for indirect lithographic printing (offset printing)”.
Bleeding - Penetration through the tape of a coloring liquid (paint, etc.) onto the surface to which the tape is applied.
Blemish - A mark, deformity, or injury which impairs the appearance.
Blind Embossing. Blind embossing is a paper processing stage in the print process where male and female dies are used to generate an impression in the paper under high pressure. Embossing with raised motifs is known as high embossing and embossing with sunken motifs as deep embossing. There are also multi-stage embossing procedures where the motif has different levels, and relief embossing which creates a spatial effect with three-dimensional profiles. High embossing can also be simulated by applying and melting special powder materials.
Bloom - A dusty or milky looking deposit caused by migration of a liquid or solid to the surface occurring sometime after curing. Sometimes bloom is confused with surface dust.
Blueprint. In printing, blueprint was the term used for monochrome prints of finished printing copy, owing to their faint blue color. Today, even corresponding, simple black-and-white prints are generally referred to as blueprints. They serve as proofs for checking the completeness, position and content of the individual graphic elements (texts, images, etc.).
Book Printing. Book printing is a general term used for the printing of books and brochures that consist mainly of text and only a few pictures.
Bond - The union of materials by use of adhesives, usually used in related parts vulcanized after attaching.
Bonding Tapes - Bonding tapes have pressure sensitive on two sides to bond mating surfaces with strengths that range from permanent to repositionable. Substrates range from metal to wood to film, foam, paper and foils. Adhesive types are acrylic, rubber, thermo bond and electrically and thermally conductive.
Bristol Board. Bristol board is paperboard comprising three or more layers, where the outermost layers are wood free, while the inner material may contain wood. Bristol board is not coated and is therefore a natural paperboard. It is durable and produces good results in offset printing and finishing. Typical fields of application include postcards, envelopes and packaging materials.
Bulky Paper. A soft, elastic, extremely thick stock. Also known as thick printing paper.
Bumpon Products - A 3M trademark name for self-adhering shapes made of urethane rubber that when applied will help prevent slipping, mute noise and absorb impact. Not to be used outdoors, if exposed to UV, chalking will occur.
Bursting Strength - The ability of a tape to resist damage when a force is applied evenly and perpendicularly to the surface of a tape.
Butt Joint - Joining two ends of material whereby the junction is perpendicular to the ID of an O-ring.
Caliper. The thickness measured under specified conditions, usually measured in mils (thousandth of an inch).
Calibration. In a general sense calibration refers to the task of coordinating device to ensure correct operation. At the prepress stage, input and output devices – monitors, scanners, imagesetters and son on – are generally calibrated to test how colors are depicted and to take corrective action if necessary.
Carrier. A web stock or the backing material that holds a pressure sensitive adhesive, especially used to refer to double-faced or double coated tape construction.
Cast-coated. Cast-coated paper and board has a particularly high gloss. This is obtained not by calendaring but by rolling the moist (or specially moistened) printing material with a chrome-plated drying cylinder polished to high gloss.
Catalyst. A chemical in small quantities which accelerates a chemical reaction without itself necessarily becoming part of the final product.
Cellular Material. A generic term for materials containing many cells (either open, closed, or both) dispersed throughout the mass.
Cellulose Wrapping Paper. Cellulose wrapping paper is a stock that comprises at least 65% primary pulp (sulfite and groundwood pulp) and a maximum of 30% wastepaper.
Character Set. The term ‘character set” refers to the range of letters, numbers and other characters that a font contains or that an input or output device can process.
Checking. Short, shallow cracks on the surface, generally due to effect of destructive action of environmental conditions.
Chemical Resistance. The resistance of a pressure-sensitive material to chemical deterioration.
Chromo Paper. Chromo paper includes wood pulp or wood free stocks coated on one side. The coating is always waterproof and is designed for maximum embossing, varnishing, and bronzing performance in offset environments. Chromo paper is used mainly to make labels, wrappings, and cover paper.
Clean Proof. A page without any misprints.
Closed Cell. A flexible, cellular material consisting of a non-interconnecting cell structure.
CMYK. CMYK (an acronym for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black) designates the color model usually employed in printing technology which uses the basic colors cyan, magenta and yellow. The fourth “color” is black, which is used to ensure a visually satisfying black tone.
Coated Paper. Papers are coated to improve surface gloss, luster, whiteness and printability. The coatings consist of natural pigments, a binder, and various process materials. The procedure is carried out on special coating machines in the paper mill. Coating can have many different effects, giving the paper a surface that ranges in appearance from very shiny (gloss enamel) to somewhat muted (satin velvet) to dull (matte). Cast-coated papers have a shiny mirrored surface achieved through drying on a hot, highly polished cylinder. Paper used to be coated right on the paper machine, which is why the umbrella term "machine-coated paper" is still used to mean coated offset, gravure, and letterpress stocks.
Coating. A layer of material covering a surface.
Coating Weight. The weight of a coating per unit area.
Cockling. When the relative humidity is lower in the environment than in the paper, the edges of stacked sheets can dry out and contract (tight edges), causing the paper to buckle in the middle.
Co-extruded. Refers to film extruded in individual layers with the possibility of different raw materials in each layer providing unique combined film properties.
Cohesive Strength - The internal strength of an adhesive mass.
Cold Flow - The tendency of a pressure-sensitive adhesive to act like a heavy viscous liquid over long periods of time. Such phenomena as oozing and/or increases in adhesion are the results of this characteristic.
Color Density. The term color density describes the optical density of areas printed in color. This value is important when monitoring quality in printing processes and can be measured using special instruments (reflected light densitometers). However, it is only ever possible to compare the color densities of an individual hue with each other.
Color Depth. The term color depth (or bit depth) refers to the number of bits used to store the color information of a pixel in the pixel format.
Color Management. Color management refers to the control of color reproduction in a digital graphic production process. The various input and output devices from the scanner to the printing press support different color spaces, depending on the device. In order to standardize the way colors, appear throughout the production process, color profiles are generated for the devices and processes involved in the process. The combination of these color profiles makes it possible to calculate the coefficients necessary for data conversion. Those colors in a given color space that cannot be displayed in another are approximated as closely as possible.
Color Profile. The color profile of an image input or output device (scanner, monitor, printer, printing press, etc.) is an element of color management which indicates how the color information supplied by the device behaves with respect to a superordinate, device-neutral color system (e.g. the CIELAB color space). Manufacturers supply color profiles with professional devices. To ensure high-quality results, profiles need to be created individually using special measuring instruments. This procedure may need to be repeated at regular intervals.
Color Proof. A color proof is used for a binding, advance check of the colors of a printed product. It entails much less effort than a press proof on the press itself and can also be produced away from the printing site. In addition, there has recently been a major drop in the price of printers that reliably produce high quality color prints. The prerequisite for an accurate color proof is, however, the reliable control of the (electronic) preprint process with a color management system that also includes the press and the paper used.
Color Separation. A color separation is the color component of a digital print original which corresponds to a color in multicolor printing. The most popular four-color printing process is the CMYK color model which requires four separations in the colors cyan, magenta, yellow and black for producing the corresponding printing plates. The color separations which together form a complete color original is known as a color set.
Color Space. A color space is the set of all colors which can be portrayed by a single-color system. Well-known color systems are CIELab by the CIE, Kodak's PhotoYCC, RGB used in PCs and CMYK used for printing. CIELab and PhotoYCC are suitable for processing and storing images. The color spaces of the RGB and CMYK systems on the other hand are noticeably smaller. In addition, CMYK data is only ever useful for a given printing process and cannot be used again in other output media.
Compound - A mixture of polymers and other ingredients to produce a useable material.
Compression Set - The residual deformation of a material which remains in foam or rubber after it has been subjected to and released from a specific compressive stress for a definite period of time at a prescribed temperature. Compression set measurement are made for the purpose of evaluating the creep and stress relaxation properties of rubber. The numerical value is that percentage of the amount compressed that does not return, NOT a percentage of the ENTIRE specimen.
Computer-to-film. Computer-to-film refers to the process of creating films for printing plate production which uses electronic sheet assembly. To this end data are gathered from various sources and transferred to a filmsetter. A more recent version of this, suitable for linework or contone originals, is desktop computer-to-film. Here the film used for producing the printing plate is not processed photographically, but instead is printed. This requires the printer in question (laser, inkjet printer) to be capable of true-to-size printing on the foil.
Computer-to-plate. In the computer-to-plate process, data from the computer is imaged directly onto the printing plate, without using film as a transference medium. This reduces costs, but the printing foils used in this process wear out faster than conventional printing plates and may need to be replaced on a periodic basis. What is more, depending on the process, the foils cannot always be stored once they have been printed. Recently, new materials, which use thermal energy instead of visible light for imaging purposes, have made it possible to process film in daylight conditions and to develop film without using chemicals.
Computer-to-print. The term Computer-to-Print covers all printing processes which do not require physical printing plates. Using processes derived from computer technology – e.g. laser printing – appropriately equipped presses can print directly from suitably processed data. Computer-to-Print is ideal for short runs, and in particular personalized printing.
Conductive - To conduct or transmit heat or electricity.
Conformability - The ability of tape to fit snugly or make essentially complete contact with a curved or rough surface and/or of an irregularly shaped object without creasing or folding.
Contact Stain - Discoloration of a product by another material in the area directly touching it.
Contone. original Contone originals are generally print originals with more than one lightness level for the colors. Because printing technology can only recognize full colors, contone originals must be screened before reproduction, i.e. broken down into dot systems. By varying the size or frequency of the screen dots, the impression of different shades is created in the printed image.
Converter (Fabricator) - Transforming raw materials by processing them through equipment such as printing presses, laminating, coating and slitting machines, that converts or changes the web of material into an intermediate form or final product.
Co-polymer - A polymer consisting of two different monomers chemically combined.
Copper Foil Tapes - Aluminum, brass, copper, lead and stainless-steel foils are electrically and thermally conductive and used in the electronics, medical, transportation, construction and many other markets.
Corona Treatment - A process that alters the surface of a material or its surface energy by exposing that material to a high voltage electrical discharge treatment. Typically used to raise the surface energy of films such as polyethylene or polypropylene to obtain better adhesion of inks, adhesive and other coatings. High energy surfaces permit better wet-out (contact) of the coating than low energy surfaces.
Cracking - A sharp break or fissure in the surface, generally due to excessive strain.
Crazing - A surface effect on material characterized by multitudinous minute cracks.
Creep - A slow movement of the adhesive or backing under stress, which occurs with lapse of time after the immediate deformation, due to low cohesive strength.
Crepe Paper - Paper with crinkled or puckered textures. This allows the paper to stretch or elongate making it useful to curve and conform to irregular surfaces better that flat paper.
Creped - Paper that has small "folds" in it, giving it high stretch.
Cross Direction Tensile - Tensile strength measured at right angles to the length.
Cross Section - An O-ring as viewed if cut at right angles to the axis showing internal structure.
Cross-Linked (Cured) - The development of a three-dimensional structure in an adhesive, which is activated normally by heat. An improvement in shear resistance, high temperature resistance, and oil or solvent resistance will normally result.
Cyan Overhang. In contrast to the theory, in most cases in four-color printing you don’t need equal quantities of the three basic colors cyan, magenta and yellow to create a neutral gray. Instead, you generally need a significantly higher quantity of cyan. The extra cyan is known as the cyan overhang.
Cupping - A slight U-shaped deformation of the tape (at right angles to the length) which usually appears after unwind tension is relaxed.
Curl - Material that does not lay flat when slit or sheeted.
Curling - The tendency of a tape to curl back on itself when unwound from the roll and allowed to hang from the roll.
Cut - The distance between cuts or parallel faces of articles produced by repetitive slicing or cutting of long pre shaped rods or tubes such as lathe cut washers.
Cuts - The number of rolls slit from a master roll.
Delamination - A separation of the backing into two distinct layers, separation between laminations of a tape consisting of more than one backing, or the separation between filaments and backing of a filament-reinforced tape.
Density - A material's weight per unit volume. For instance, a lower density film will offer more coverage per its weight.
Die - A metal block usually circular with an inner and outer ring used to form materials via extrusion.
Die-cutting - Process by which any shape, pattern or design can be cut out of various pressure-sensitive tapes, utilizing customer-made dies.
Dielectric Strength - The measure of a product's ability to resist passage of a disruptive discharge produced by an electric stress; the voltage that an insulating material can withstand before breakdown occurs. Measure as volts per mil of thickness.
Differential Adhesive - Where the adhesion of faced and unfaced sides of double-sided tapes differs.
Digital Printing. In a general sense, digital printing refers to printing processes in which the information is transferred from the computer directly onto the paper, without need for film and printing plates. It links color printing technology with the printing press' mechanical system. Digital printing cannot achieve the same level of quality as conventional printing processes, but it is faster and more cost-effective for small print runs and allows special techniques such as personalized printing or printing-on-demand.
Dimensional Stability - Where the tape will suffer minimal distortion, due to varying conditions of heat, cold, moisture, or other influences.
DIN Sizes. These standard metric sheet sizes are widely used outside the United States. The most important ones belong to the A series, in which the next-smaller size has a length corresponding to half that of the next-larger size. They include A4 (210 x 297 mm) and A3 (297 x 410 mm).
Dot Gain. Dot gain is a term used to describe the growth in the size of screen dots during the prepress and press stages. This can have very different causes depending on the process stage in question. The effect is most marked in areas of medium image brightness and should be taken into account when performing settings in order to prevent color shifts during print.
Double Coated (Double Sided or Double Faced) - An adhesive applied to both sides of a carrier. Also referred to as double sided or double faced.
Double Coated Foam Tapes - Double coated foam tapes are used for bonding rough and irregular surfaces, filling gaps and voids, sealing and redistributing weight and stress, and can be used both indoors and outdoors.
Double Coated Tape - A pressure-sensitive tape consisting of a carrier which is typically film or cloth with acrylic, rubber or silicone adhesives coated on both sides. The adhesive on each side of the carrier may be the same or different chemistries and may have the same or different coating thicknesses. Typically, a silicone differential release liner is necessary to unwind the roll. Double coated tapes offer internal strength, stability, and support to stretchy materials. Applications include mounting, joining, bonding, and holding indoors and outdoors.
DTP. This concept - the abbreviation stands for desktop publishing - refers to the combined processes of text creation, page makeup and image assembly as an integrated activity performed on the computer. As a result, DTP delivers data in the form of pages which are then further processed at the sheet assembly stage – either in the form of films or in electronic form (computer-to-film / computer-to-plate). DTP data uses the PostScript page description language. In electronic printing this data is used directly to produce print copies or for printing.
Drawdown - A small hand-prepared sample.
Dry Edge - A lack of coating on the edge of the web, often used for easy liner removal.
Durability - The probability that an item will continue to function at customer expectation levels, at the useful life without requiring overhaul or rebuild due to wear-out.
Durometer - A meter used for measuring the hardness of cellular materials. The Shore 00 scales measures the hardness of sponge.
Ease of Unwind - The force required to remove the tape from the roll under prescribed conditions.
EB inks. EB inks are printing inks that are dried by electron beams. Similar to UV inks, which are cured by ultraviolet light, EB inks are cured by means of polymerization. This is brought about by the direct effect of the electrons on polymerizable substances. Unlike UV inks, special initiators are not required for EB inks. As a result, EB inks are, among other things, better in storage. Their special advantage is considered to be the option of processing them in thick layers, because the electron beams penetrate deeply. However, curing must be carried out in an oxygen-free environment (under a gas blanket) in order to avoid oxidation of the ink and the printing material caused by the high-energy electrons.
Edge Curl - The peeling back or lifting of the outer edge of a tape after application. See cupping.
Edge Sealer - A material designed to provide additional security and durability after application of a pressure-sensitive product to a substrate.
Effect Coating. In the printing technology sector, effect coatings are coatings that are used to achieve special effects. Generally speaking, these are pigmented coatings that vary greatly, according to the pigments in the ink, the shape and the size of the particles. In screen printing, for example, layers can be printed so thickly that you can actually feel the printed structures. These applications can be used, for example for wallpaper printing, since they enable relief effects to be achieved without any need for embossing tools. Effects can also be created using ‘scratch-and-sniff’ coatings. These contain aromatic materials that are either released by scratching or give off their smell continuously.
Elasticity - The property of an article which tends to return to its original shape after deformation.
Elastomer - An elastic, polymeric substance, such as a natural or synthetic rubber with resilience or memory sufficient to return to its original shape after major or minor distortion.
Electrical Strength - The voltage at which breakdown of the tape occurs under the prescribed conditions of test, divided by the distance apart of the two electrodes between which the voltage is applied.
Electrical Tapes - Electrical tapes consist of a substrate such as glass cloth, polyester, polyimide, and vinyl with an adhesive on one or both sides. Often used for insulating, bonding, color coding, marking, protecting, thermal management and electrical shielding.
Elongation - Extension produced by a tensile stress, expressed numerically as a fraction or percentage of initial length.
Elongation at Break - The amount of tape that has stretched length wise at the point of breaking. It is expressed as a percentage of the original unstretched length
EMI/RFI Shielding Tapes - Shielding tapes include copper and aluminum foils, elastomeric materials laminated to polyester or polyimide films. Often used for their conductive and non-conductive properties, shielding and absorbing static charge, grounding, antistatic masking, cushioning and mechanical protections.
Extended Liner (Dry Edge) - Refers to the liner width extending beyond the actual adhesive tape width, for easy liner removal. Also referred to as finger lift liner.
Extrusion - Material, under pressure, which is forced through the opening of a die in order to obtain a desired cross-sectional shape.
Face Material (Face Stock) - Any paper, film, fabric laminate or foil material suitable for converting into pressure sensitive material stock. In the finished construction, this web is bonded to the adhesive layer and becomes the functional part of the tape construction.
Failure Modes Analysis (FMA) - A formal, structured procedure used to analyze failure mode data from both current and prior processes to prevent occurrence of those failure modes in the future.
Feasibility - A determination that a process, design, procedure, or plan can be successfully accomplished in the required time frame.
Ferro-gallic Ink. Ferro-gallic ink is a very durable type of ink that consists of gallic acid (also known as tannin - 3,4,5- trihydroxy benzoic acid, chemical formula: C6H2(OH)3COOH), iron sulfate and possibly a binder (gum arabic). Ferro-gallic ink has been known since antiquity. It got its name from the oak galls used as a source of tannin. The ink was used for documents of all kinds until the advent of chemical dyes in the very recent past. When fresh, pure ferro-gallic ink has only a pale color. Only after being applied to paper and exposed to atmospheric oxygen does it form a strongly coloring, black pigment. It is insoluble in water and thus very difficult to remove. After extended periods of time, ferro-gallic ink attacks paper and parchment, causing what is known as ink corrosion.
Feathering - A jagged, irregular point line frequently characterized by small "feathers" of the top-coat projecting into the masked area.
Filaments - This longitudinal “thread” of glass, polyester, nylon or other high-strength materials.
Filler - Chemically inert, finely divided material added to the Elastomer to aid in the processing and improvement of physical properties.
Film Tapes - Film tapes are constructed of a substrate such as polyester, polypropylene, polyethylene, polyimide with acrylic, rubber, silicone adhesive on one side or both sides. Often used for masking, splicing, insulating and protecting.
Film - Uniform, homogeneous, nonfibrous synthetic webs of plastic with a thickness of under 10 mils or .010”.
Fine Paper. Fine paper is the general term used to describe paper of superior quality. In production, particular attention is given to the stability of the surface as well as good, even transparency (also with watermarks) and of course good printability.
Finishing. In printing, the term "finishing" is used to cover the operations that take place after the actual print run and lead to the finished printed product. Depending on the type of product, this includes folding, collating and trimming of the printed sheets, as well as binding and possibly also packing.
Flagged Rolls - Used to identify a bad spot in the roll for internal processing (or possibly a splice).
Flagging - A peeling away from the surface of the end of a length of tape, particularly in a spiral-wrap application.
Flame Resistance / Retardant - The ability of a tape to withstand exposure to flame. Fireproof materials will not burn when exposed to a flame. Flame resistant (fire retardant, self-extinguishing) materials will burn when exposed to flame but not continue to burn after the flame is removed.
Flat-back Paper - Paper with a flat (not crinkled) texture. This allows the paper to retain its original shape making it useful for maintaining a straight line and smooth backing feel.
Flexible - The ability of a tape to be freely bent or flexed during application, particularly applicable to low temperature use.
Flexible PVC - Polyvinyl Chloride film suitably compounded with plasticizers to yield a softer, more flexible film.
Flexographic Printing. Flexographic printing, a letterpress process, uses photopolymer wash-off printing plates (letterpress plates) or variations of these (rubber printing plates) as printing forms. Using low-viscosity ink it is possible to print on very different materials with screen rulings of up to 54 l/cm. Flexographic printing is a very fast, uncomplicated printing process suitable for packaging printing and multi-color newspaper printing.
Fluorescent Printing Inks. Fluorescent printing inks are stimulated into shining, thus changing color, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light. There are various types that react to UV light of different wavelengths. Fluorescent printing inks are used for protection and to identify documents at risk of being forged.
Fluorocarbon Films - A film with very high and low temperature limits, excellent electrical characteristics and very slippers, non-sticking surface. One example is Teflon® (polytetrafluorethylene), a DuPont™ product.
Fluting - Distortion of a roll of tape such that layers no longer form a circle.
Foam Tapes - Foam tapes are constructed with a substrate such as polyethylene, polyurethane neoprene and vinyl with an adhesive on one or both sides. Applications include window glazing, hyper joint extreme bonding.
Foam - A soft, cushiony material formed by creating bubbles in the base materials, such as natural or synthetic rubbers, or other elastomeric materials.
Foil - Foils, including aluminum, copper, brass, lead, stainless steel is electrically and thermally conductive. Often used in the electronics, medical, transportation, and constructions markets.
Fold. In bookbinding a sharp break or bend in the papers. By folding either a product with consecutively numbered pages or simply a smaller format is produced. Folding is generally done by special folding machines. A distinction is made between right angle and parallel folds. In right angle folding the next fold is always at a right angle to the previous one. In parallel folding, always parallel to the first.
Friction - Resistance to motion due to the contact of surfaces.
Gapping - Opening between layers of tape within a roll.
Gasket - A device used to retain fluids under pressure or seal out foreign matter. Normally refers to a static seal.
Gasketing Tape - Gasket materials include natural & synthetic rubber, thermoplastic rubber, silicone rubber, films, plastic, vinyl, woven/non-woven fabrics, cork/rubber and chipboard and UL & FR materials. Name brands include Neoprene, EPDM, Buna-N, PORON®, and Nomex® , Lexan® , Mylar® , Kapton® .
Gauge - A device for measuring the thickness of an individual element.
Ghosting - Ghosting is an error which can occur with indirect printing processes such as offset printing. This is produced when screen dots have double or multiple contours and can occur in single-color printing, but more often in multi-color printing. Faulty printing of this type increases the screen tonal value and leads to dot gain. This slight shift in the position of the printing elements is caused by register fluctuations during printing, which may themselves be caused by the paper or the press.
Gloss - A light reflection characteristic of tape backings, usually expressed by such terms as glossy, low gloss, matte, etc.
Grain long, grain short - These two terms are used to indicate whether the paper web should travel through the paper machine lengthwise or widthwise. This is generally indicated by marking whether the width or length of the paper should correspond with the machine's reel width. The fibers (and thus the grain) lie parallel to the edge not indicated.
Green Strength - Uncured adhesion between plied or spliced surfaces.
Halftone - Halftone is the term used to designate a contone image which has been prepared for printing using screening technology. This is a pure black/white or full-tone original which uses screening to simulate contones. The inventor of halftone technology is considered to be Georg Meisenbach (1841-1912), from Nuremberg, who in 1882 patented a screen that he had produced (DRP 22244).
Hardness, Shore A - The Durometer hardness as measured on a Shore "A" gauge. Higher numbers indicate harder material. (Example: 30 Shore is soft, and 90 Shore is hard)
Heat Activated - A heat activated film laminated to a pressure sensitive adhesive on a release liner coated on both sides with silicone. Ideal for bonding, sound damping and non-slip materials.
Heat Resistance - The ability of a tape to withstand physical or chemical changes when exposed to high temperatures. a specified temperature under well-defined conditions.
High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) - A polyethylene resin/film made from petroleum ranging in density from approximately 0.940 to 0.965 gm//cm3. It is harder, more opaque plastic able to withstand higher temperatures. It has an SPI resin code of 2.
High-speed Unwind - Unwinding or dispensing of tapes at a relatively high rate of speed, usually more than 50 feet per minute.
HKS inks - HKS is a hybrid system for inks which comprises 84 different color tones. It is jointly published by the three ink manufacturers Horstmann-Steinberg, Kast + Ehinger and H. Schminke & Co. It is structured on nine basic colors plus black and white. Ink series are available for sheetfed offset on coated and uncoated papers, newsprint and continuous paper.
Holding Power (Shear Adhesion) - The ability of a tape to resist the static forces applied in the same plane as the backing. Usually expressed in a time required for a given weight to cause a given amount of tape to come loose from a vertical panel.
Homogeneity / Homogeneous - Uniformity of composition throughout the material.
Hot Melt (Pressure sensitive adhesive) - A pressure sensitive adhesive, applied to the backing in a hot molten form, that cools to form a conventional pressure sensitive adhesive.
Hue - Hue, defined within the context of a color space, is a term used to identity a (white) paper's exact shade. Not to be confused with whiteness, which is a different property of paper.
Hydrocolloid - Hydrocolloid adhesives are complex polymeric structures with the combined properties of adhesion and absorbency, making them ideal for wound care applications.
Hydrolysis - Chemical decomposition of a substance involving the addition of water.
Image Control - The Image Control component of the Prinect workflow concept from Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG is the world's only quality assurance system in the print process that measures complete print sheets using spectrophotometric technology. After a comparison of the measuring results with the values of the OK sheet, the color deviations that have been identified are fed online to the press in order to adjust the ink zone settings. This method processes a thousand times more information than is possible using print control strips.
Impact Resistance - The ability of a tape to resist sudden impacts pulls or shocks as may sometimes be encountered by packages in transit.
Imposition proof - Like the blueprint, the imposition proof (or layout proof) is mainly intended for checking the content and completeness of the elements of printing copy. In contrast to a blueprint, this proof is in color, although the colors are not binding. Large-format inkjet printers are mainly used for printing imposition proofs of this kind today.
Industrial Tapes - Examples of materials used in manufacturing include single coated and double coated tapes, polyurethane, polyethylene, neoprene and vinyl foams, surface protections and metalized films, aluminum and copper foils. Applications include cushioning, vibration dampening, sealing, shock absorption, chemical and weather resistance, masking, splicing, insulating, thermal management, decorating, mounting, marking, labeling, bonding, etc.
Ink fountain - The ink fountain in a printing machine has the task of supplying the block with the designated amount of printing ink. To do so it uses several components, such as ink storage containers, transport mechanism as well as transfer inking rollers.
Inkjet printing - Inkjet printing is a printing process where minute drops of ink are applied to the surface to be printed by means of a jet. The jet is applied using either piezoelectric or thermal technology. Color inkjet printers now work with up to six colors and well over a hundred individual jets. Nowadays, depending on the process, they are capable of achieving the same standard as high-quality four-color printing.
Insulating Tape - Normally refers to tape used for electrical insulation.
Insulation Resistance - The ability of tape to prevent the flow of electrical current across its surface, usually measured on the backing.
ISO - Abbreviation for the International Standardization Organization headquartered in Geneva. Germany is represented by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (German Standardization Institute, DIN). The ISO has the task of developing or harmonizing standards in all areas of technology, with the exception of electrical technology.
ISO Class 7: This is a classification of cleanroom that limits airborne particulate contamination. Cleanrooms are classified according to the number and size of particles permitted per volume of air. Federal Standard 209E equivalent: Class 10,000.
ISO Class 8: This is a classification of cleanroom that limits airborne particulate contamination. Cleanrooms are classified according to the number and size of particles permitted per volume of air. Federal Standard 209E equivalent: Class 100,000.
IT - Information technologies.
Job printing - Job printing is the term used to describe printing in smaller volumes for example for private individuals’ businesses etc. Printing newspapers, magazines and written works is not job printing. Probably the oldest example of job printing is the letter of indulgence from the Roman Church which dates back to the 15th century.
Job ticket - The job ticket is a digital 'job folder' at the prepress stage of the production process. It is used to store instructions relating to imposition operations, trapping and OPI, as well as output parameters and printing and finishing information.
JPEG - JPEG is a common method, developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group, for compressing image files in RGB mode. It can reduce the file size by up to 95 percent. It involves a loss of image information, although the degree of compression can be selected such that these losses remain within acceptable limits. JPEG requires no license and is internationally standardized (ISO 10918). It uses the "Discrete Cosine Transformation" (DCT) method, where image sections of 64 pixels each are processed. A new compression method, known as JPEG 2000, is currently being developed. It uses what are known as "wavelets" and is said to be able to compress images by 20 percent more than JPEG. The image quality also suffers less at high compression rates, as the image is processed as a whole. Moreover, JPEG 2000 is also to support non-lossy compression, as well as other color modes (such as CMYK) and color management. The new standard is scheduled for presentation to the public in the fall of this year.
Kapton® - A DuPont™ registered trademark for polyimide film used in applications that require extreme temperatures, chemical and radiation resistance, electrical performance and mechanical stability.
Kiss-cutting - Die-cutting process by which only the actual usable part remains on the liner; all waste (matrix) around the die-cuts is removed to allow for easy removal.
Kraft - A sulfate wood pulp paper.
Label Stock - Pressure sensitive materials that are usually printed, frequently die-cut, furnished in roll or sheet form with a liner, and intended for use as labels.
Laminate (verb) - Apply one layer of material over another.
Laminated - Built up from thinner layers.
Laminating - Joining of several layers of varying materials utilizing pressure-sensitive tapes.
Lamination - Two or more materials bonded together by an adhesive, solvent or extrusion coating, designed for specific protective functions.
Laser - Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
Lay Flat (Stay Flat) - A material with good non-curling characteristics.
Legging - The stringing out of a pressure-sensitive adhesive, that may occur during die cutting and stripping.
Lexan® - General Electric Company's registered trademark for polycarbonate film.
Lifting - A situation where a section of tape has pulled away from the surface to which it has been applied.
Line engraving - Line engraving refers to a printing plate (generally for letterpress printing) which is created by etching on the basis of a line original.
Liner Release - Separation of the liner from the pressure sensitive adhesive immediately before it is applied to the substrate.
Low-Density Polyethylene (LDPE) - A polyethylene resin/film made from petroleum ranging in density from approximately 0.910 - 0.940 g/cm3. It is weaker than HDPE being relatively soft, with a lower tensile strength and higher resilience. It has an SPI resin code of 4.
Low Stretch - Mostly applicable to film tapes, the ability of a tape to resist stretching and hence shrink back once applied. This is an ideal attribute for lane or hazard marking tapes.
Low Tack - Where the tape's instant stick is not high and is designed to be removed. Usually appears on tapes designed for masking applications. (This does not necessarily mean the tape has low adhesion as well as low tack). See also tack or quick stick.
The "Lumbeck system" - Polyvinyl acetate adhesive binding system used for brochures, books etc. The ends of a pile of sheets are fanned out. After clamping, the leaves are fanned out in one direction and coated with glue. This process is repeated on the other side. The process is named after the bookbinder Emil Lumbeck. (1886-1979).
Machine Direction (Web Direction) - The direction of a base stock parallel to its movement through the coater.
Machine Direction Tensile - Tensile strength measured parallel to the length of the tape. Unless otherwise specified, tensile strengths are a measure in the machine direction.
Machine-finished paper - Machine-finished stock is given its characteristic surface gloss while still inside the paper machine, a process known as calendaring. Additional smoothness can be obtained with supercalendering.
Machine proof - The machine proof - also known as a press proof - is used to check the printed result as the outcome of the entire printing process. It is the most complex control tool in the printing process. Its greatest advantage is that it provides a realistic impression of the printed result, independently of the preceding preprint process. Machine proofs come closest to the subsequent printed result when produced on the original paper that is later to be used for the print run.
Magazine paper - Also called illustration printing paper, magazine paper is uncoated, generally wood pulp-based, calendared stock containing fillers. It is especially suited to the reproduction of graphics and is primarily used to produce magazines using the photogravure process. A stock featuring excellent dimensional stability.
Magnetic printing inks - Magnetic printing inks react to magnetic fields. With the help of suitable sensors, they can be used, for example, for machine-based identification of labels.
Map paper Map paper is paper with particularly good dimensional stability.
Margins - In the design of a printed page, the free strips between the type area and the page edges are known as margins. According to the position on the page, it is possible to distinguish between the head, foot and side margins and the central gutter. When measuring the margin widths, ratios are often used in typography. The gutter has a value of 2 and the other margin widths in the sequence head – side – foot – are then assigned values in relation to this. For the margin widths, only their ratio to each other is specified – e.g. “2: 3 : 3 : 4”.
Masking Tape - Tapes and films used to temporarily protect a portion of a surface used in general manufacturing, electronics, aerospace, paper & packaging, construction & glazing, plastics, medical & personal care industries.
Master Roll - A full width roll that has finished the primary manufacturing process and is usually untrimmed.
Material Converting: The converting industry takes continuous rolls of thin, flat materials — known as webs — threads them through processing machines (such as printing presses, laminating, coating and slitting machines) and converts or changes the web of material into an intermediate form or final product.
Material Splice - An area where tape has been used to attach two rolls of material (vinyl, polyester, etc.) together to form one continuous web.
Matrix - Scrap material that is left after a die cuts a pattern, usually removed and thrown away.
Medical Adhesives - Medical adhesives designed for short term and long-term skin contact, hypoallergenic, no sensitizing, also for medical devise manufacturing. Products include single and double coated foams, films, woven's, non-woven's featuring acrylate, rubber, hydrogel, hydrocolloids, silicone adhesive systems, and class VI liquid medical adhesives. Applications include anything from band aides to incontinence, diabetic device mounting to neo-natal attachments.
Medical Tapes - Medical tapes are constructed of film, foam, woven and non-woven substrates with hypoallergenic and non-sensitizing adhesives, silicone adhesives, hydrogel adhesives or hydrocolloid adhesives on one or both sides of the substrate.
Memory - The property of a material that causes it to attempt to return to its original dimensions after being distorted.
Metal Foil - Thin, flexible sheets of metal, such as aluminum, copper and lead, used as tape backings because of their inherent properties such as weather resistance, electrical conductivity and reflectivity.
Metalized Film - A plastic film that has been coated on one side with a very thin layer of metal, usually aluminum.
Microprint - Microprint is extremely small print that only becomes legible when magnified greatly. It is used as a security element on banknotes and other documents at risk of forgery. The image resolution of color copiers, for example, is insufficient to reproduce the microprint.
MIL (.001") - One thousandth of an inch.
Modified Acrylic Adhesive - A modified acrylic adhesive typically bonds to a wider variety of surfaces than standard acrylic adhesives and has good chemical, solvent and UV resistance.
Moisture Vapor Transmission (Moisture Vapor Transmission Rate) - A measure of the rate of water vapor transmission through a specific material.
Moisture Vapor Permeability - The rate at which a tape will allow water vapor to pass through a given area of tape.
Natural Aging - The change in a material that occurs when it is exposed to normal environmental conditions.
Non-Oriented - A material that has yet to be stretched or expanded to its maximum size.
Non-Woven - Non-woven carriers are made of randomly laid or oriented fibers or threads held together by interlocking or bonding either mechanically, chemically or thermally. Non-Woven carriers offer specific features such as absorbency, liquid repellence, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, cushioning, bacterial barrier and sterility.
Off-Core - Layers of tape are in correct alignment, but tape is displaced sideways on core.
Offsetting - Occurs when a printed tape is unwound and some of the printing ink is picked off by the adhesive or migrates into the adhesive. It is, in effect, a de-lamination of the ink.
Oil Resistant - Ability of a material to resist the swelling and deterioration effects of various types of oils.
Ooze (Oozing) - Adhesive "squeezing out" or moving out of the ends of rolls, stacks, or sheets causing ends to feel sticky and possibly causing material to block.
Opacity / Opaqueness - The ability of a tape to prevent the transmission of light.
Open Cell - A flexible cellular material consisting of an interconnecting cell structure which allows air to pass through.
Out gassing - The release of volatile components in the form of vapors or gases under heat or vacuum.
Over-laminating - Application of a clear film to a label stock for the purpose of protection or to enhance graphic quality.
Over-run - A quantity of material in excess of the amount ordered. Trade practices permit +/- 10% tolerance for customer over-runs and under-runs.
Ozone Resistant - Withstands the deteriorating effects, generally cracking, due to exposure to an atmosphere containing ozone.
Packaging - A unit that provides protection and containment of items plus ease of handling by manual or mechanical means.
Packaging Materials - Packaging materials include masking tapes, duct tapes, filament tapes, flat back tapes, gummed paper tapes, label protection tapes, tensilized tapes, printed tapes and much more.
Pancake-Wound Rolls - Pressure-sensitive tapes are typically supplied to the converter in pancake-wound rolls, where each layer of tape is directly on top of the last one (with or without a liner).
PDF - PDF is the abbreviation for what is known as the Portable Document Format. Developed by software manufacturer Adobe Systems Inc. in the USA, this data format is used for exchanging and processing electronically stored, formatted documents with text and images, independently of the hardware and software used. One of the special features is that texts and graphics are stored in vector form, meaning that the resolution of their representation is dependently solely on the output device (monitor, printer). PDF files can generally by recognized by the ".pdf" file name suffix. They can be created using the Adobe Acrobat program. The Acrobat Reader is available free for displaying and printing PDF files.
Peaking - Large singular upheavals in the outer layers of a roll of tape.
Perforating - Hole-punching the release liner, usually between kiss-cut parts.
Permanent Set - The amount by which an elastic material fails to return to its original form after being stressed in tension for a definite period and released for a definite period.
Permeability - The rate at which a liquid or gas under pressure passes through a solid material by diffusion and solution.
Photoshop - Photoshop, from Adobe Systems Inc., is the leading software package for digital image manipulation in DTP applications. It is available for Macintosh computers and Windows PCs.
Picking resistance - Also known as sizing strength. Picking resistance refers to the amount of force necessary to separate particles from the surface of the paper as it moves vertically. Picking resistance is a key criterion for offset-printing applications.
Piping (Tunneling) - The material fails to adhere to the release paper or film tightly enough and a line of air forms between them, usually starting at one edge and working across the web.
Pixel - A pixel – an abbreviation for picture element – is the computer term for an image dot, i.e. the smallest unit of a digitally displayed image. The memory required by an image consisting of pixels is determined by the size of the image, its resolution, i.e. the number of pixels per unit of area, and the number of colors to be displayed.
Pixel format - The format for storing image data where, for a given resolution, every pixel in the image is represented by the appropriate data. Image processing programs such as Photoshop use the pixel format, the most common being TIFF (Tagged Image File Format). The pixel format is most suitable for real images, but, depending on the quality of the image, this requires a very large amount of memory.
Plastic Film - Films are often referred to as plastics; include vinyl, polyethylene, polyester, polyurethane, polyamides, polystyrene, co-polyesters, acetates, UHMW and many more.
Plastic Foam - Plastic foams include vinyl, polyethylene, polyester, polyether, polyurethane and polystyrene foams.
Plasticizer - A substance added to a material to impart flexibility, workability, and dispensability.
Plasticizer Migration - The migration of liquid plasticizers from some plastics into an adhesive and/or substrate that may cause excessive softening or degradation of the adhesive and film.
Plasticizer Resistance - The ability of the tape and adhesive to withstand plasticizer migration.
Plasticity - A tendency of a material to remain deformed after reduction of the deforming stress to or below its yield stress.
Pock Marks - Uneven blister-like elevations, depressions, or pimpled appearance.
Polyamide (PA) - Otherwise known as Nylon, is a thermoplastic which has high strength and is very resistant to wear and abrasion. It also has good puncture resistance, heat resistance, and low gas permeability.
Polycarbonate - A high-clarity film combining the versatility of acetate with the durability of polyester. This thermoplastic polymer has excellent temperature resistance, impact resistance and optical properties. It is lightweight, easily molded and thermoformed, used in many interior applications.
Polyester Film - A strong film having good resistance to moisture, solvents, oils, caustics, and many other chemicals. It is usually transparent.
Polyester (PET) - A strong film having good resistance to moisture, solvents, oils, and many other chemicals. It is usually transparent, although it is available with a metalized finish. It has an SPI resin code of 1.
Polyethylene (PE) - Polyethylene is a thermoplastic produced by polymerizing ethylene gas. A tough, stretchy material, typically a film or foam substrate, that has very good low temperature characteristics. It is classified into several different categories based mostly on its density, low density (LDPE), and high density (HDPE) polymers. Applications include sealing window glass into wood, aluminum or plastic frames, general purpose bonding & mounting.
Polymer / Elastomer - A material formed by the joining together of many (poly) individual units of a monomer. The units may be the same or different. There are copolymers, tri or ter polymers, quadric-polymer, high polymers, etc.
Polypropylene (PP) - A cousin of polyethylene, with generally similar properties, but stronger, lightweight and having a higher temperature resistance. This rigid plastic has a SPI resin code of 5.
Polystyrene (PS) - A thermoplastic substance, which is in solid state at room temperature, but flows if heated above its glass transition temperature (for molding or extrusion) and becoming solid again when cooling off. It can be rigid or foamed and has a relatively low melting point. Typical applications are containers and protective packaging. It has a SPI resin code of 6.
Polyurethane (PU) Foam - Closed cell foam with adhesive on two sides, used in permanent bonding applications to replace mechanical fasteners, epoxies and screws. Applications include vibration and sound dampening, dust sealing, gasketing, bonding and mounting and used in fenestration, electronics, transportation, sporting goods, etc.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A thermoplastic material created by the polymerization of vinyl chloride, depending on the composition may be flexible or rigid.
Porosity - The presence of numerous small holes or voids.
Post press - Umbrella term for all processing operations performed on the printed product after the actual printing process, e.g. folding, binding, trimming, packaging.
Post print - The word "post print" is an alternative term for "finishing" and encompasses the operations that take place after the print run and result in the finished printed product.
Preprint - The word "preprint" is an alternative to "prepress" and covers all the working steps that take place before the actual print run and lead from the starting material to be printed - texts, images, etc. - to the ready printing copy
Press Length - The length of a product which can be vulcanized at one time in a press, limited to the length measurement of the press.
Pressure Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) - A term commonly used to designate a distinct category of adhesive tapes and adhesives, which, in dry (solvent-free) form, are aggressively and permanently tacky at room temperature and firmly adhere to a variety of dissimilar surfaces upon mere contact without the need of more than finger or hand pressure. They require no activation by water, solvent, or heat to exert a strong adhesive holding force toward such material as paper, plastic, glass, wood, cement, and metals. They have a sufficiently cohesive holding and elastic nature so that, despite their aggressive tackiness, they can be handled with the fingers and removed from smooth surfaces without leaving a residue. Pressure sensitive adhesives can be blends of natural or synthetic rubber and resin, acrylic, silicone or other polymer systems, with or without additives.
Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tape - A term defined as a continuous flexible cloth, paper, metal, plastic or foam coated on one or both sides with a permanently tacky adhesive at room temperature which will adhere to a variety of surfaces with light finger pressure with no phase change (liquid to solid) and usually in roll form. PSA tape components include: Single Coated (Self Wound), Single Coated (Linered), Transfer Tape (Unsupported), Double Coated and Heat-Activated.
Primary colors - Primary colors are the basic colors of a color system, which are used to mix all other render able color tones. The primary colors are cyan, magenta and yellow (black functions only as an auxiliary color for the technical aspects of printing) in the CMYK system, and red, green and blue in the RGB system.
Primer - A primer is used to increase the bond of the adhesive to the backing. The use of a primer assists in keeping the adhesive on the backing when a tape is removed.
Printability / Printable - The ability of a tape to accept and hold a printed legend and specially to resist offset of the printing when rewound into a roll after printing.
Printed Tapes - Printed tape carries a message such as handling instruction, identifying products, promoting a message. Flexographic printing is available in single or multiple colors on materials including plain, single coated or double coated paper, film, foil, foam & cloth. Applications are in the paper, packaging, labeling transportation, surface protection, medical, personal care, computer, plastics, construction & electronic markets.
Production Trial Run - Product made using all production tools, processes, equipment, environment, facility, and cycle time.
Proof - A proof is a single print of an original which serves as a definitive means of verifying the layout and color for subsequent printing. In analog proof procedures (Dry-Match, Press-Match etc.) the proof is created from ready imaged films; this largely corresponds to the subsequent printing result. In digital proofing, the page composed on the computer is output on a color printer. This proof is more cost effective, as it does not require the use of film. However, in this case the imaging procedure remains untested.
Protective Tapes - Protective tape prevents marring, scratching, or UV tainting of exposed surfaces on metal, wood, glass, plastics and other materials. Specialty formulated adhesives offer clean, stain-free removal after application. Protective tapes are often used in the aerospace, automotive, electronics, furniture, glass and mirror, graphic arts and metal industries.
PTFE / Polytetrafluorethylene - PTFE is known for exceptional resistance to high temperatures, chemical reaction, corrosion and stress-cracking. DuPont™ Teflon® is the registered trademark name for polytetrafluorethylene.
PVC / Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride - PVC includes films, foams and tubing with and without adhesives.
Random Length - A unit of material which does not fall into any current classification for standard length.
Rebound - Rebound is a measure of the resilience, usually as the percentage of vertical return of a body which has fallen and bounced.
Redigitization - When print originals in the form of film material are converted back into digital data using scanners and software, the process is termed redigitization. The data can be stored in common file formats and can then undergo further processing using appropriate applications. This method allows a printshop or prepress company to use the scanned films in a digital workflow. Redigitization is often carried out when processing advertisements where the customer has supplied films rather than data as print originals. Three redigitization techniques have become established: Copy dot (exact digital copy of the screened original), Descreening and Mixed Mode (a combination of the other two methods). The nature and quality of the original determine which method is the most suitable.
Reinforced Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tape - In addition to the backing and adhesive, these tapes include a reinforcement layer of woven or knitted cloth or glass strands parallel to the machine direction. Typical backings include polymeric films such as polyethylene and polyester. Rubber based adhesives are the most common, but others can be used. Examples of reinforced tapes are duct and filament tapes
Reinforcements - A material added to a tape to provide additional strength.
Relative Humidity - The ratio of the quantity of water vapor actually present in the atmosphere to the greatest amount possible at the given temperature.
Release - The force required to remove the release liner from the face stock at a specified speed and angle.
Release Coat Transfer (Silicone Transfer) - Particles of the release coat stick to the adhesive on unwind; the resulting tape will have little or no ability to stick.
Release Coating (Easy Unwind Treatment) - A coating applied to the backing on the side opposite the adhesive that provides ease of unwind and prevents delamination or tearing. Without a release coating, the tape would adhere to its own back and would not unwind.
Release Liner - Siliconized paper or film coated on one or both sides that protects the adhesive until use. The liner is removed and discarded before application. Most frequently found on double-coated tapes and labels. Fluorosilicone liners are available in special situations that required silicone adhesive to release.
Reliability - The probability that an item will continue to function at customer expectation levels at a measurement point, under specified environmental and duty cycle conditions.
Removability - Ability to remove the tape from the substrate without damaging or contaminating the substrate under specified conditions, usually after a long period of time.
Removable Adhesive - A pressure-sensitive adhesive characterized by low ultimate adhesion and clean removability from a wide variety of surfaces.
Repositionability - Ability to remove the tape from the substrate without damaging or contaminating the substrate under specified conditions, yet retaining bond strength when re-applied, usually after a short period of time.
Reproducibility - The variation in the average of measurements made by different operators using the same gage when measuring identical characteristics of the same parts.
Residue - Adhesive left on the substrate after removal.
Resilience (Resilient) - The property of a material that enables it to return to its original size and shape after removal of the stress which causes the deformation.
Resistance to Ageing - The ability of a tape to withstand normal exposures, after application, and to perform satisfactorily.
Resistance to Oils, Grease and Solvents - The ability of a tape to resist exposure to chemicals after application, and to perform satisfactorily.
Reversion - A deterioration of physical properties that may occur after air aging at elevated temperatures, evidenced by a decrease in hardness and tensile strength, and an increase in elongation; Natural rubber, butyl, polysulfide and epichlorohydrin polymers exhibit this effect (extreme reversion may result in tackiness). Most other polymers will harden and suffer loss of elongation on hot air aging.
Rewind Slitting - Preferred method for slitting large volumes of standard sized rolls of pressure-sensitive tape. In this process, large master rolls of jumbos are used to unwind tape and then are rewound layer over layer across a set of pre-spaced cores.
Rewinding - The operation of winding the web stock from the reel onto a core to produce rolls of the desired width, diameter and tension.
Rigid PVC Film - Polyvinyl chloride film which do not incorporate plasticizers or do so in such significantly low amounts so as not to lower the modulus (stiffness) appreciably. Also known as unplasticized PVC. When formed or molded, it maintains its shape when empty or unsupported.
RoHs (Restriction of Hazardous Substances) - A European Directive (2002/95/EC) which restricts the use of specific heavy metals and flame retardants in electrical and electronic equipment.
MS / Root Mean Square - The measure of surface roughness, obtained as the square root of the sum of the squares of micro-inch deviation from true flat.
Roll - Sheet rubber and gasket material of a uniform width rolled up on itself from which gaskets and other products of lesser dimensions and various shapes may be cut.
Rotocure - Rotary press.
RTV / Room Temperature Vulcanization - Generally, silicone rubber after mixing will cure when exposed to air.
Rub-off - What happens when pressure on stacked sheets causes the ink on one surface to rub off on the next. This "carbon-copy effect" can occur due to the pressure of the clamp in trimming machines.
Rubber Adhesive - A pressure sensitive, viscoelastic blend of polymeric rubber-based materials and tackifying resin. The rubber materials may be natural or synthetic. Rubber adhesive are a very broad class of materials and come in many types to achieve different properties. Typically, rubber adhesives have a high initial bond, adhere to a wide variety of surfaces, but have poor aging qualities and fair chemical, UV and solvent resistance.
Rubber Latex - Colloidal aqueous emulsion of an elastomer.
Rubber Silicone - Silicone rubber is available in many thickness and widths in roll form or sheet form in many grades including FDA and Medical grades with and without adhesive. Often used in general manufacturing, paper & packaging, construction & glazing, electronics, plastics, medical and the personal care industries.
Runner - The distribution system within a mold connecting the sprue to the gates.
Repulpable - Paper tapes that can be recycled to the process without contamination of the broke pulp.
Saturation (Impregnation) - Adding material (saturant) to the backing for improvement of physical properties and resistance to various deleterious environments.
Self-bonding - Tape that will adhere to itself without fusing so that the individual layers can be separated cleanly if required.
Self-extinguishing - The ability of the tape to cease burning once the flame is removed.
Self-Wound Roll - A roll of tape in which each layer of tape is directly on top of the last one. The roll contains no liner.
Service Temperature - The temperature range that a pressure-sensitive adhesive will withstand after 72-hour residence time on the substrate.
Shear Strength - The ability of the adhesive to resist force applied across the tape, forcing the substrates to slide over each other.
Shelf Life - The period of time during which a product can be stored under specified conditions and still remain suitable for use.
Shore Hardness - An indentation method of rating the hardness of rubber using a Shore Durometer with the A scale from 0 to 100.
Short Term Temperature Resistance - Maximum short term is a matter of seconds or minutes rather than hours. Tapes with short-term high temperature resistance are used in manufacturing processes. Machine speed, tensions and temperatures reached will need to be taken into account and the tape trailed prior to full implementation.
Shrinkage - Decreased volume of seal, usually caused by extraction of soluble constituents by fluids followed by air drying.
Silicone - A unique polymer system that can be a very effective release coating or a pressure sensitive adhesive capable of functioning effectively at extreme temperatures.
Silicone Adhesive - A pressure sensitive, viscoelastic blend of polymeric silicone-based materials and tackifying resin. The silicone materials may be natural or synthetic. Silicone adhesives have a wide temperature performance, low temperatures to 600 F° and have excellent chemical, UV, solvent and aging resistance.
Simulation - The practice of mimicking some or all of the behavior of one system with a different, dissimilar system.
Single Coated (Linered) - The adhesive is coated on one side of a face stock and lined with a paper or film release liner to protect the adhesive. Examples include foil insulation tapes and label stock.
Single Coated (Self-Wound) - The adhesive is coated on one side of a face stock and the other side is generally coated with silicone to enable the tape to unwind easily. Good for wrap around sealing, closure systems, label stock and provides moisture vapor barrier.
Single Coated Tape (Single Faced or Single Sided) - The pressure sensitive adhesive is applied to one side of the backing. The backing composition may be paper, film, foil, nonwoven or high thread count woven cloth. The adhesive composition may be an acrylic, rubber or silicone. Examples of single coated tapes are electrical, masking, carton sealing and medical tapes.
Sinks - A collapsed blister or bubble leaving depression in the product.
Skin - A relatively dense layer at the surface of a cellular material.
Skived - A manufacturing process where material is shaved (like shaving of a layer of soap). Usually better for wrapping than extruded materials.
Slip Sheet or Interliner - A treated sheet used to cover the adhesive to facilitate handling.
Solvent Adhesive - An adhesive component that is dissolved in an organic solvent for coating. Rubber or acrylic based systems can be coated this way.
Solvent Resistance - The resistance of a pressure-sensitive adhesive to the destructive action of specific organic liquids.
Solvent - A dissolving, thinning, or reducing agent. Specifically, a solvent is a liquid that dissolves another substance.
Specific Adhesion - The relative tendency of an adhesive to form a bond on a specific surface. For example, some adhesives may be permanent on one surface and removable from another.
Specific Gravity - The ratio of the mass of a unit volume of a material to that of the same volume of water at a specified temperature.
Splice - A joint or junction made by lapping or butting edges, straight or on a bias, and held together through mechanical means. Also defined as a point at which two separate lengths of tape are joined together.
Sponge Rubber - Cellular rubber consisting predominantly of open cells made from a solid rubber compound.
Spool (Traverse) Wound Rolls - One layer of tape starts on a side of the core. The next layer overlaps with the first one and then the tape is wound back and forth traversing from one side of the core to the other. This process allows for much longer rolls (up to 33,000yds depending on the width and thickness of product) thus reducing the downtime involved with constant roll changes.
Stabilize - To increase the steadiness of a film and keep it from changing or fluctuating. Usually laminating polyester to one or both sides of the vinyl stabilizes vinyl films.
Stainless Steel Foil Tapes - Foils include stainless steel, lead, aluminum, brass, and copper. Electrically and thermally conductive adhesive tapes and foils serve the electronics, medical, transportation, construction markets.
Stress - Force per unit of original cross-sectional area required to stretch a specimen to a stated elongation.
Stress Relaxation - The decrease in stress after a given time of constant strain.
Substrate - The surface to which an adhesive is applied for any purpose such as bonding or coating.
Surface Energy - The measure of surface tension in dynes. The lower the surface energy of a substrate, the more difficult it becomes for an adhesive or coating to wet out that surface. Low Surface Energy LSE materials resist adhesive spread over the substrate while High Surface Energy HSE materials allow excellent spread and provide the best adhesion.
Swelling - The increase in volume or linear dimensions of a specimen immersed in a liquid or exposed to a vapor.
Tack (Quick Stick, Initial Tack, Finger Tack) - The ability of an adhesive to latch onto a substrate or surface with a minimum of pressure or to adhere to itself.
Tacky - The condition of the adhesive when it feels sticky or highly adhesive. Sometimes, used to express the ideas of pressure sensitivity.
Tape- Types of tape include adhesive transfer tapes, single coated tapes and double coated tapes, typically constructed with a substrate and an adhesive on a roll. A carrier can be polyester, polyethylene or vinyl film with acrylic, rubber and silicone adhesive. Other materials are foils, fabrics, foams, polyimide, polycarbonate, UHMW and the list goes on. Uses include masking, reflective, decorating, sealing, attaching, bonding, identifying, insulating, surface protection and many more.
Tear Resistance - The ability of a tape to resist tearing after a tear have been started by cutting or nicking of the edge. Commonly expressed as "pounds per inch thickness".
Tear Strength - The maximum load required to tear apart a specified specimen, the load acting substantially parallel to the major axis of the test specimen.
Tearability - How easy the tape is to tear by hand by a person of average strength without the need for any cutting tools. Where tear-ability is indicated as difficult, tools may be needed to cut the tape.
Tearing - Breaking or slivering of a tape during unwind.
Teflon® - Teflon® is a registered trademark of DuPont™ known for exceptional resistance to high temperatures, chemical reaction, corrosion and stress-cracking. Generically, it is known as tetrafluoroethylene film. Applications include bonding, masking, reflective, insulation & surface protection.
Telescoping - A sideways sliding of the tape layers, one over the other, such that the roll looks like a funnel or a telescope.
Temperature Range - Lowest temperature at which rubber or other tape materials remains flexible and highest temperature at which it will function.
Template - A guide for positioning pages or parts of pages consisting of a series of lines to indicate final trim size, bleed, head margin, back margin, type page size, or other elements.
Tensile Strength (Brake Strength) - The force required to break a piece of tape by pulling straight on opposite ends of the piece under specified conditions.
Tensile Stress at Given Elongation - The tensile stress required to stretch a uniform section of a specimen to a given elongation.
Tension Set - The extension remaining after a specimen has been stretched and allowed to retract.
Thermal Conductivity - The measure of heat transmission through a cellular material. Determined by the base material, cell size, density and often water-resistant properties.
Thermal Expansion - Expansion caused by increase in temperature. May be linear or volumetric.
Thermochromic printing inks - Thermochromic printing inks change color in line with temperature changes. Depending on the type of ink in question, the color can either change or disappear completely. Some thermochromic inks even react to body heat when touched only briefly. This makes it possible to protect documents against forgery in a readily verifiable manner. Inks that change color at appropriate temperatures are used as temperature indicators for drinks and medicines, or also for monitoring heating and cooling units. Most of the color changes are reversible, although there are also thermochromic printing inks that change color permanently at a certain temperature. When applied to heat-sensitive products, they can indicate potential damage.
Thermoforming - Common post extrusion process for plastic sheet stock where the sheet is heated until soft and formed via mold into a specific shape.
Thermosetting Adhesive - An adhesive, which becomes firmer during heating and remains so on cooling. Thermosetting of adhesive improves solvent resistance and increases softening temperature.
Thickness - Distance from one surface of a tape, backing or adhesive to the other surface, usually expressed in mils or thousandths of an inch. This is usually measured under slight pressure with a special gauge. (Excludes release-paper where applicable).
Tight Release - The adhesive does not release from liner freely.
Tolerance - Maximum allowable variation from agreed-upon or specified dimension.
Transfer Tape (Unsupported) - An adhesive put on a differential release liner in such a manner as to have a higher value of release from one surface than from the other. Thus, if the backing is pulled away from the adhesive after application to the substrate, it will remain on the side with the higher release. Transfer tape offers superior conformability and is often used for foam bonding and nameplate mounting.
Transparency - The ability of a tape to allow transmission of light. A tape is rated as transparent if 10-point type can be read easily when the tape is applied directly over it.
Traverse Direction (Cross direction) - The direction of a substrate from left to right and from side to side as opposed to the web direction (90 degrees to the machine direction).
UV / Ultraviolet Light - That part of the spectrum wherein the wavelength of light is shorter than that of visible light.
UV Resistance - The ability of any material to withstand extended exposure to ultra-violet rays without degradation, hardening, or excessive discoloration.
UV Curing - A system that uses ultraviolet rays to facilitate the curing process of adhesives and inks.
UHMW / Ultra High Molecular Weight Film - A high performance polyethylene that is highly resistant to abrasion, and corrosive chemicals.
Ultimate Elongation - The maximum elongation prior to rupture.
Uncoated paper Paper without an additional protective coating; "untreated" paper. The application of a colorless coat of glossy or matte varnish as final printing step, either as an overprint varnish applied on-press or a water-based preparation applied by a separate coating machine. Varnishes enhance the appearance of print products and, especially on matte-finished stock, improve the rub resistance of printing inks.
Under cure - State of vulcanization less than optimum. It may be evidenced by tackiness or inferior physical properties.
Uniformity - The consistency of a single type of tape either within a roll or from roll to roll or from lot to lot.
UPVC / Unplasticized Vinyl - A tough durable plastic film, differing from PVC principally in the UPVC is not very stretchy.
Unsupported Pressure Sensitive Adhesive Tape (Adhesive Transfer Tape) - Unsupported PSA tapes consist of release liners and adhesives. The release liners are commonly paper and coated on both sides of the paper with silicone release agents creating a differential release. Acrylic adhesives are commonly used in this application. Examples of unsupported tapes are envelope sealing, graphic attachment and splicing.
Unwind or Unwind Adhesion (Unrolling) - The force required to remove tape from the roll.
UV coating - UV coatings (UV stands for ultra-violet) are coating systems based on unsaturated polyesters or polyacrylates, or a combination of the two. For both, ultra-violet light triggers the drying process. This high-energy light breaks chemical bonds in the coating material’s molecules. These then link up to form long, highly branched chains, causing the material to solidify. The drying process takes only seconds, which means that UV coatings can be worked quickly.
These coatings contain no volatile substances either, making the layer thickness of the liquid coating similar to that when it is dry. They can also be applied inline, i.e. in the press, in very high layer thicknesses (up to 8 µm). UV coatings achieve excellent gloss and can be barely distinguished from laminated products (film-lamination). UV coatings, however, are not entirely odor-free.
UV inks - UV inks are printing inks that are cured with ultraviolet (UV)light. For this purpose, these inks do not contain any volatile substances. Rather, in addition to color pigments, they contain individual molecules and short molecular chains that can link to form polymers and so-called photo-initiators. The latter decompose when exposed to UV light and form highly reactive fragments. These radicals trigger a polymerization process in which stable, three-dimensional network structures are formed. UV inks are primarily used to print non-absorbent materials, such as metal (sheet metal) and plastic, but also high-quality paper boards and labels.
Varnish - Varnish or print varnish is a clear coating that can be processed like an ink in (offset) presses. It has a similar composition to ink but lacks any color pigment.
Vinyl / PVC / Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride - A synthetic plastic, known as PVC or polyvinyl chloride, can be manufactured in rigid or flexible constructions. This tough, durable plastic film is resistant to oils, chemicals, and many solvents. It has excellent abrasion resistance. It also can be colored. Its high stretch is due to the addition of a plasticizer and is generally more flexible and formable than polyesters
Viscosity - The flow rate of an adhesive or the resistance of a material to flow under stress and change shape.
Void - A bare uncoated area on either the adhesive or release-coated side of the tape where not intended.
Volume Swell - Increase in physical size caused by swelling action of a liquid.
Warp - The yarn that run lengthwise in a woven fabric.
Waste - Waste consists first and foremost of pages that are incorrectly printed. But it also applies to all wastepaper generated in printshops. For example, damaged paper, trial runs when setting up presses, packaging materials and innumerable print products and book returns.
Water Absorption - The increase in weight and volume after immersion in water.
Water Penetration Rate - The weight of water transmitted through a controlled area of tape under a specified time and conditions.
Waterproof (Water Resistant) - The ability of the tape to withstand water for a specified time and temperature without the tape bond altering.
Weather-ability (Weather Resistance) - The ability of the tape to perform satisfactorily after exposure to specified conditions such as cold, water and ultra-violet rays.
Weaving - A poorly wound roll of tape in which the individual layers of tape are not in alignment with the other layer.
Web - The width of any material going through a machine.
Wet Out - The ability of an adhesive to spread, thereby filling in the hills and valleys of the substrate.
Wet Tensile - Tensile strength of tape that has been kept wet for a specified period of time. Measures ability of tape to function satisfactory when exposed to moisture.
Wet on dry printing - Multicolored print process, in which the first Print color is dried before the next color is printed e.g. color printing on a single-color press.
Wet-on-wet printing - Printing in color printing-press with two or more colors. Further colors are printed ever before the previous colors have dried.
Yellowing - A gradual change in the original appearance of a material characterized by the development of yellow and brown hues.
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